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【功夫汉语】中英双语从“盘中餐”到“视觉盛宴”

华中企业新闻网  2018-10-27 16:49  付恒

Chinese food, as the saying goes, could be found anywhere people live. It is not an overstatement to say that food serves as the most dynamic element of Chinese culture in international stage today.

凡有饮水处,皆有中国餐。”我们几乎可以说,“饮食”是中国文化在当今国际上最有活力的部分。

There have been many records about food in ancient Chinese history. The Book of Han says that “Food is heaven to the people” and ancient Chinese people regarded “jiu ding” (the nine tripod cauldrons) as a symbol of state power. The Lüshi Chunqiu (Master Lü’s Spring and Autumn Annals) recorded that Yi Yin (a great minister and official of Shang Dynasty) persuaded Tang, who was the founder of Shang Dynasty, with the words “zhi wei” (the best taste) as the guidance for state governance and administration. Yi translated complex political philosophy into delicious diet. The Book of History compared the prime minister to chef. Laozi said, “Governing a large state is like cooking a small fish.” Confucius said “There are only two things that matter-- sacrifice and army.” These quotes express that food is important and irreplaceable in Chinese culture. Until today, many Chinese people still ask “Have you had your meal?” when they greet others.

《汉书》中说“民以食为天”,古代中国把国家政权称为“九鼎”;《吕氏春秋》记载伊尹以“至味”劝说商朝的开国君主汤,把高深的政治哲学,讲成了惹人垂涎的食谱;《尚书》把做宰相比喻为“和羹调鼎”;老子说“治大国若烹小鲜”;孔子说“国之重事,唯祀(献食物给神灵)与戎”……这些文献记录,都说明“饮食”在中国文化中有着重要且不可替代的地位。直到如今,很多中国人见面打招呼,首先关切的仍然是“您吃了吗”!

With the absence of cameras in ancient times, people used paintings to record their lives. Now let’s take a look at some of the memories of “food” in Chinese painting.

由于古代没有照相机,社会生活方方面面的历史图像,主要通过绘画来保存。现在我们就来看一看中国绘画之中,关于“饮食”的若干记忆碎片。

In the Spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC) and the Warring States period (475-221 BC), there were paintings of banquets carved on bronze wares. Plenty of depictions of chefs and banquets can be found on stone reliefs in Qin dynasty (221-207 BC) and Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), frescoes of Six Dynasties (220-589) and in drawings since Tang dynasty (618-907) and Song dynasty (960-1279). In addition to formal and royal feast, painters also pictured scholars’ gathering and ordinary people’s lives.  

早在春秋战国时期,青铜器的刻纹上就有宴饮图。秦汉以来的画像石(砖),六朝的壁画乃至唐宋流传下来的绘图,都有对庖厨、饮宴的大量描写。除了堂皇的庙堂飨宴,文人雅集、百姓糊口都是画家们目光的投注之处。

 

The first is the fresco of banquet scene in Dahuting Tomb of Han dynasty, which was painted more than 1800 years ago.

先来看距今1800多年前,打虎亭汉墓中的壁画《宴饮百戏图》。

Dahuting Tomb of Han dynasty,located in Xinmi, Henan Province,is the largest unearthed tomb of Han dynasty in China. The dweller of the tomb is Zhang De, Taishou (governor of a province) of Hongnong County in later Han Dynasty. The wall of the tomb was painted with colorful murals on the top and bottom that a row of guests in colored robes sitting by a banquet table, drinking, and watching Baixi (the name of acrobatics in ancient China). The red plates, bowls, cups, and Zhan (a kind of small cup in ancient China) filled with delicacies and alcohol were placed on dining-tables in front of the guests. In the middle of the fresco, many entertainers performed drum, gong, Tapan (plate tapping), Zhiji (beat of wooden boards), and fire blowing. It’s as if we traveled back to the Han Dynasty and found ourselves surrounded by music and acclamation.

打虎亭汉墓位于河南新密,是中国最大的出土汉墓。墓主人是东汉弘农郡太守张德,墓壁绘有色彩绚丽的壁画。画面上下各绘有一排宾客,身穿彩色的袍服,跽坐席上,宴饮作乐,观看百戏(杂技)。宾客面前的席上,摆有朱色的、盛有菜肴酒水的盘、碗、杯、盏等。画面的中央,则有多位艺人在表演击鼓、敲锣、踏盘、吹火、执节等,我们仿佛穿越到汉代,还能够听到现场的音乐、掌声与赞叹。

In the Wei and Jin Dynasty (220-420AD), Jiayuguan, the western end of Great Wall, was known as the strategic place of border area. It was an important joint point for the integration of the ancient Silk Road and national exchanges.

到了魏晋时期(约220—420年),在长城最西端的嘉峪关被称为河西咽喉、边陲锁钥,是古代“丝绸之路”与民族交流融合的重要关节点。

The image of Fanzhi (kebab) in the murals of Weijin tomb in Jiayuguan which showed that Hu people’s food (Hu: ethnic groups in the north and west of China in ancient times) had become an indispensable cuisine in the feast held by Hexi nobles (Hexi: land west of the Yellow river, usually refers to Shaanxi, Qinghai and Gansu Provinces). The Book of Jin writes, “People in Jin Dynasty follow the trend of eating lamb hot pot and roast whole lamb. Royal households and aristocrats are zealous in collecting the wares of Hu. The joyous gathering is also in such practice.”

 

在嘉峪关魏晋墓的壁画上,我们可以看到燔炙(烤肉串)的图像,这本是胡人饮食,此时已是河西豪族宴饮时必不可少的佳肴。《晋书》所谓:“中国相尚用胡床貊盘,及为羌煮貊炙,贵人富室,必畜其器,吉享嘉会,皆以为先。”

In the later Jin Dynasty, Gu Kaizhi (about 348-409 AD), the great painter, was hailed as the “Huazu” (painting master) of Chinese paintings and owns the same reputation of Wang Xizhi (a famous calligrapher of Eastern Jin, known as the sage of calligraphy). Gu Kaizhi was the first painter with established reputation and preserved works in Chinese history. Before him, the painters were just downplayed as craftsmen whose names faded out. After him, zither, chess, calligraphy, painting were highly praised by society so that the artists’ names went down in history.

东晋大画家顾恺之(约348—409年)被誉为中国画的“画祖”,与“书圣”王羲之齐名。他是中国历史上有名有姓并有图像流传的第一位画家。在他之前,画家只是工匠,不被重视,姓名都失传了。在他之后,琴棋书画才被社会推崇,画家也得以青史留名。

The line drawing of Gu Kaizhi was praised as “the thread of spring silkworm” in art history for its smoothness and consistency. One of his painting Wise and Benevolent Women records a story about Duke Ling of Wei and his wife. It was late night, the couple heard some noises of a rolling carriage. However, the noises disappeared when it moved to the inner door and appeared again when it passed the inner door.

顾恺之的线描被美术史誉为“春蚕吐丝”,轻盈流畅、安静连绵。《列女仁智图》这个画面记录了:深夜,卫灵公与夫人对坐,外面传来了辚辚车声,但声音到阙门时消失了,过了阙门后又再次听到。

The Duchess thought it must have been Bo Yu, and said to the Duke, “I once read in the Book of Rites that there are rule for the carriage to pass through the gate. Bo Yu is a man of virtue so that he won’t forget the etiquette at night.” The Duke thus sent a man to check if it was Bo Yu and it turned out he was the man. However, the Duke lied to the Duchess that it was not Bo Yu. The Duchess filled a cup with liquor and again congratulated the Duke (the picture showed in the painting), saying “I once thought there was only one capable and virtuous official in the state of Wei while it turned out there is another one. What a blessing for the state!” The Duke was pleased by the duchess’s words and told her the truth.

夫人认为,车上的那位一定是伯玉:“我听说《礼》曰,马车经过公门有规矩,伯玉是贤大夫,必然不会因为晚上就忘记了礼节。”卫灵公派人去察看,果然是伯玉。但他开玩笑对夫人说:“不是伯玉。”夫人听后满斟一杯酒(正如画面上这个片段),再拜祝贺:“以前我以为卫国只有一个贤臣伯玉,现在又多了一个有礼、守规矩的贤臣,此国家之福也!”卫灵公大笑,这才告诉夫人实话。

In the Wei-Jin Period of China, seven virtuous men of that time including Ruan Ji and Liu Ling used to gather in the bamboo forest, drinking and singing. They were called Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, the scholars who ignore the social norms and refuse to work for the government. The painting of seven sages of the bamboo grove by artist Sun Wei of Tang Dynasty depicts their gathering. Liu Ling, the man on the right side, was a toper. He once wrote a poem to extol alcohol which says “the only thing that matters in the world is alcohol.” It is said that he would be drunk and vomit then drink again. Every time he drank in a carriage, he would have a man with a hoe follow him and bury him wherever he was intoxicated beyond recognition. He was thought to be free from worldly concerns at that time. Nevertheless, some people thought his behavior was too pretentious after the rise of Zen. These people mocked him that if he would not be bothered to be buried for his drunken death.

魏晋时期,阮籍、刘伶等七人常聚在山阳县竹林之下喝酒纵歌,世谓“竹林七贤”,被认为是不拘礼法,与朝廷不合作的文人代表。唐代画家孙位(约862-907年)的《高逸图》,描画的就是他们七位。画面右侧这位刘伶是著名的“天下第一酒鬼”,曾写过《酒德颂》:“唯酒是务,焉知其余!”据说他饮必醉、醉必吐、吐复饮……常乘车,携酒壶,使人荷锄随后,醉死便埋……当时被誉为潇洒至极。不过后来“本来无一物”的禅宗兴起,有人就笑他矫情至极,醉死已矣,何必执着要埋?

In the painting, with his head sideways, Liu Ling is deep drunk and about to vomit, holding the wineglass in his hands. The potman near him is kneeling down and trying to catch his vomitus. This picture makes us think about the “Bacchus” drawn by Caravaggio, a western painter. Even though the styles of the figures and wineglasses are totally different, both of those paintings indicate the same meaning that people should enjoy the present since life is difficult and short.

画中此公双手抱着酒杯,醉态十足,侧首欲吐,身旁的侍童正持壶跪接。我们不禁联想起西方绘画中卡拉瓦乔(Caravaggio)笔下的那位“酒神”,虽然人物与酒杯的造型截然不同,却都是人生苦短、应及时行乐的相同寓意。

There is another painting named A Palace Concert in Tang Dynasty by an anonymity, which was finished in the late Tang Dynasty (about 862-907 AD), coinciding with the time when Lu Yu, the Sage of Tea, finished the Book of Tea.

唐代还有一幅画家佚名的《宫乐图》,此画完成于晚唐,正值茶圣陆羽完成《茶经》之际。

In the painting, several ladies from the imperial harem are sitting around the square table, fanning slowly and tasting tea as well as listening to the music. There is a big teapot on the table. One lady takes the tea scoop and shares the tea with others. Another lady, the second from the right, takes the tea cup and forgets to drink tea as if she had been absorbed in the music. The lady, who is first from the left, is bowing her head and drinking tea. A maid stands behind her and supported her in case that she would be drunk with tea. Western artistic images always strictly follow the rule that is called the “Focus Perspective”. For example, the table in the painting should look wider when you see it from a close range and narrower when you see it from afar. However, the table in the painting A Palace Concert presents the visual effect that goes against the western rule, which is the classic practice of traditional Chinese painting that is called “Anti-Perspective”. Why do painters usually take the technique called “Anti-Perspective” to present the tables and appliances in the traditional Chinese paintings? There are two reasons. One is that Chinese painters are not willing to draw the things from an objective perspective because they usually see neatness as ordinariness. Another reason is that painters can put more figures and things in the painting by adopting “Anti-Perspective”, which gives more space for people to think.

图绘后宫女子数人围坐方桌,团扇轻摇,品茗听乐。桌上有只很大的茶锅,一名宫女手执长柄茶杓,正在分茶。右2那位宫女手持茶盏,仿佛听乐出神,忘了饮茶。左1这位宫女则低头饮茶,侍女在她身后轻扶,好像怕她醉茶。西方的艺术图像总是严谨的“焦点透视”法则,比如桌子是近宽远窄。而《宫乐图》中的茶桌却呈现出近窄远宽的视觉,这正是中国画的经典样式之一“反透视”。为何中国画中桌案器具常常呈现“反透视”大概有两种说法,一是中国画家常常觉得太工整会显得“俗”,不愿按照客观所见去规规矩矩地画;其二是“反透视”的桌案远景,可以从容布置更多的人与器物,更妙不可言。

There is another mural called Slaughterhouse that was painted in the late Tang Dynasty in the cave 85 of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang. The words on the inscription board above the mural are from The Lankavatara Sutra-The Faults of Eating Meat. The original meaning of the scripture is that flesh is formed by filthy substances. Therefore, monks and men of good deeds should abide by the rules and refrain from eating meat.

在敦煌的莫高窟85窟,还有一段晚唐时期的壁画《屠房》,壁画上方的题字牌出自《楞伽经·断食肉品》。经文的本义是说,肉是精血污秽所成之物,出家行善之人应守戒行,不可食肉。

Nevertheless, the drawings in the Mogao Grottoes are all scenes of delicious meat with aromatic flavor. Butchers are in high spirits to sell meat and make a living. In the early 17th century, Netherland painter Pieter Cornelisz van Rijck drew an oil painting called The Kitchen with the similar scene. No matter in the East or the West, secular life and religious sermon are often quite different.

可是莫高窟里的画师所绘,却是肉满架、案飘香,屠夫精神抖擞,要卖肉赚钱。17世纪初尼德兰画家凡·罗克(Pieter Cornelisz van Rijck)有一幅油画《厨房》,也是一般的肉满架、案飘香。无论东西方,世俗的生活与宗教的说教,常常是相反的图像。

After the collapse of the great Tang Dynasty, China entered the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Most of us have read the classic poetry—“Tell me, what is the uttermost extent of pain, you say. Mine is a river swollen in spring and welling east away.”, written by Li Yu, an emperor of the Southern Tang dynasty. 

唐朝灭亡后,中国进入了五代十国的历史时期。南唐后主李煜,大家都读过他的那首词,“问君能有几多愁,恰似一江春水向东流”。


Li Yu appreciated the minister Han Xizai and wanted to appoint him as Prime Minister for many times. But after analyzing the situation, Han Xizai thought that the Song Dynasty which was stationed in the northern Central Plains was eyeing the regions south of the Yangtze River with hostility. Once the divine emperor emerged, people in southern region would be eager to yield to his power. It’s the final nail in the coffin. How could he become Prime Minister of a defeated country and the laughing stock for later generations? Then he chose to live a life of dissipation to protect himself.

李煜对大臣韩熙载很赏识,多次想任命他为宰相。但韩熙载分析形势后认为:北方中原的宋朝对江南虎视眈眈,真命天子出现了,江南弃甲投降都来不及。大势已去,我怎么还能接受拜相,最后成为千古笑谈?于是他夜夜笙歌,吃喝玩乐、纵情声色,这是韬光养晦、明哲保身的一个桥段。

It is said that the famous painter Gu Hongzhong (910-980), sneaked into Han Xizai’s home and watched his banquet secretly at the order of Li Yu. Then the painting Han Xizai Evening Banquet came out. In this painting, Han Xizai looked as if he had no ambition at all. The hunched quilt on the right side and a Pipa laid on the bed spoke of his indulgence.

据说著名画家顾闳中(910-980年)奉后主李煜的命令,混入韩府观察他的夜宴与聚会,于是就有了《韩熙载夜宴图》这幅情报图。画面中的韩熙载也一副胸无大志的样子,有个细节,右侧床榻上的被褥高高隆起,一枝琵琶搁在床上,更是他纵情声色的暗喻。

Compared with the oil painting The Banquet of the Gods of the 17th century in Flanders, the eastern people were much more implicit and euphemistic to draw an indulgent banquet.

对比佛兰德斯17世纪的一幅油画《众神的饮宴》,东方人表现纵情声色的饮宴,画面显然要含蓄、委婉得多。

Among paintings in Northern Song Dynasty, the most well-known one is Along the River During the Qingming Festival by Zhang Zeduan (about 1082-1135), in which Sun Yangzheng’s Shop was doing well with all the tables occupied on the second floor. In the rightmost private room, the table was fully placed with dishes and one of the most distinctive pieces of porcelain from the Song Dynasty, vase and bowl for warming wine. A ewer is a wine pot and the bowl outside used to hold hot water. The ewer is soaked in hot water to keep the warmth of wine and make it more comfortable to drink.


再看北宋的绘画,自然绕不开家喻户晓的张择端(约1082—1135年)《清明上河图》。画面中,这家“孙羊正店”的生意极好,二楼都坐满了,最右边那个雅间里,桌上菜肴丰盛,还摆着一件最具有宋代特征的瓷器:注子和注碗,一种可以温酒的酒具。注子就是酒壶,套在外面的注碗则用来盛热水,酒壶泡在热水里,可以保持酒的温度,让人喝着更舒服。

There is a detail worth noting, in the upper right corner of the picture, the yard in the open space was unexpectedly stacked with five-layer high big wino, which once again proved that the business of the tavern is great.

大家注意一个细节,在画面的右上角,后院的空地上,竟然码放着五层高、层层覆扣的大酒缸,再次证明,这家酒店的生意好极了!

In western world, the famous painter Bruegel Pieter, like Zhang Zeduan was good at depicting the folk customs and density of people. Food, clothing, shelter and travel, and the desire to eat, are always the most basic human pursuits of life.

在西方,也有一位像张择端一样善于描绘民俗风情、人物密集的著名画家,就是滑稽的老勃鲁盖尔(Bruegel Pieter)。衣食住行,口腹之欲,永远是人类最基本的生活追求。

 

Painters in the Northern Song Dynasty preferred the panorama images, while in the Southern Song Dynasty they favored local composition, which is said to have a kind of hidden psychological association with the self-satisfied court. The work Tea Fight by an anonymous painter mirrors such status by simply capturing an image of people’s living.

 北宋的画家偏爱全景式的画面,南宋的画家则喜欢局部式构图,据说,这可能与南宋(1127-1279年)是一个半壁江山的偏安朝廷有着某种隐蔽的心理关联。佚名画家的这幅《斗浆图》正是如此——截取一个生活饮食的图像。

In Song Dynasty, citizens particularly liked tea fight (called “Dou Jiang” or “Dou Cha” in Chinese), which means that people display their own tea cultures, and then the tea tasters selected the winner according to their skills as well as the tea’s color, flavor and taste.

在宋代,“斗浆”即为“斗茶”之意,平民百姓尤其喜好斗茶。参与者以对决的方式比赛,各自秀出不同名目的茶道,由旁边的品评者来判断他们的茶道技巧与色香味,最后得出输赢。

The contestant in the lower-left position held a teapot in his right hand and a stack of saucers in his left hand. He wore a broad smile, looking very innocent and lovely. Any ordinary thing could be transformed into something visually extraordinary through artist’s exaggeration and enlargement. An American sculptor named Robert Therrien adopts this kind of strategy into his creation - a big stack of saucer, which is exhibited in art gallery. It is said that viewers’ appetite was immediately aroused once they appreciated his work.

画面左下那位参赛者,右手提着茶壶,左手捧着满满一大摞茶碟,笑容可掬,颇为天真可爱。任何平凡的事物,一经艺术家的夸张与放大,都可能产生令人意想不到的视觉反响。美国雕塑家塞里恩(Robert Therrien)就是这么干的,他就创作了这么一大摞盘碟,搁在美术馆里展览,据说观者无不食指大动。

Traditional Chinese scholars pursue playfulness and a sense of ritual in their tea and alcohol drinking. Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322), a famous painter in Yuan Dynasty, drew a picture named Purification Ceremony at Orchid Pavilion in Chinese which depicts Wang Xizhi with his friend Xie An and other literati holding a Spring Purification Ceremony at Lanting, Kuaiji Prefecture. The painting shows they gathered along the banks of a coursing stream and engaged in a drinking contest - cups of wine were drifting down from the upstream, and whenever a cup stopped in front of a guest, he had to compose a poem or otherwise drink the wine.

 

文人们喝茶饮酒,也一样喜欢追求游戏性与仪式感。元代著名书画家赵孟頫(1254-1322年)有一幅《兰亭修禊图》,画的就是王羲之与友人谢安等人在会稽山阴的兰亭雅集。大家坐在河渠两旁,在上流放置酒杯,酒杯顺水漂泊,漂到谁的面前,谁就取杯饮酒再作诗,好不快活。

Then, Wang Xizhi compiled these poems into an anthology and made a preface, the famous work At the Orchid Pavilion. This has become a typical calligraphy work on the following generations on the topic of water flowing, drinking and composing.

后来王羲之将这些诗赋辑成一集,并作序一篇,就是著名的《兰亭集序》。曲水流觞、饮酒赋诗,这是后世文人反复吟诵、书画的典故了。

Spring Morning in the Han Palace, painted by Ming Dynasty painter Qiu Ying (about 1494-1552), is one of the top ten famous masterpieces in China. It describes daily trifles of the palace in the early spring, including dressing up, dancing, singing, reading, and feeding. The characters in the painting live an extravagant life and stand in various postures. It seems to be busy, but actually they sit around.

明代大画家仇英(约1494-1552年)的《汉宫春晓图》,是中国十大传世名画之一,描述初春时节,宫闱之中的日常琐事:妆扮、歌舞、弹唱、读书、送食等等。画中人物个个锦衣玉食,姿态各异,看似忙忙碌碌,其实后宫也无所事事。

The value of this painting lies on its extraordinarily bright colors. Even the huge Taihu stone behind the maid resembles a dark-blue diamond. It is said that Qiu Ying was a varnisher at his young age. His paintings were bold in color, and push Chinese paintings to the extreme application of color.

这幅画好就好在色彩格外鲜明,甚至送食宫女身后那块巨大的太湖石,居然如宝石一般,是幽幽的蓝色。据说仇英年少时做过油漆匠,所以他的画不管三七二十一,用色无比大胆,把中国画推到色彩艳丽的极致。

Henri Matisse, a famous master in the Western art history, did the same. No matter what the color of the objective reality was, he used pigments willfully to paint according to his own subjective idea. He pushed the western painting to the extremes, earning him the name Fauvism by art historians.

西方艺术史上的著名大师马蒂斯(Henri Matisse),也是如此,根本不管客观现实中的事物是什么颜色,完全按自己的主观意念,任性使用颜料作画。他把西洋画推到色彩艳丽的极致,所以被美术史称为“野兽派”。

The court painter Yao Wenhan (1736-1796) of Qing Dynasty drew a picture named Banquet in Ziguang Pavilion. The social background of this work was that the Qing Empire stepped into its most splendid and prosperous era after Qianlong Emperor’s dynastic territory expansion. He boasted himself as a super warrior who never lost. In order to promote his achievements and motivate soldiers, he rebuilt Ziguang Pavilion in 1760. On the second day of the first month of the following year, a grand feast was held in the rebuilt pavilion. Kings, nobles, ministers, leaders of Mongolia, and hundreds of soldiers attended the banquet. This work shows magnificent spectacle of the feast at that time.

清代宫廷画家姚文翰(1736-1796年)有一幅《紫光阁赐宴图》。画面的背景是清高宗乾隆皇帝一生西征南讨,国运达到巅峰。他自诩为“十全武功”,为了宣扬功绩、激励将士,乾隆廿五年(1760年)他重修了紫光阁。翌年正月初二,举行盛大筵宴,王公贵族、文武大臣、蒙古族首领以及将士百余人出席。这幅画描绘了当时盛宴的宏大场面。

Located on the west side of Zhongnanhai, Ziguang Pavilion remains an important venue for Chinese leaders to meet foreign guests.

紫光阁位于中南海西侧,至今仍是中国领导人接见外宾的重要场所。

Banquet in Ziguang Pavilion is a typical long scroll painting, which was a unique creation by Chinese painters in the history of the world art. In ancient times with the absence of camera technology, Chinese artists used long scrolls, nearly the same as today’s movies, to record continuous scenes and events.

《紫光阁赐宴图》是一幅典型的长卷画。这是世界美术史上中国画独有的创举,在没有摄像技术的古代,中国画家用长卷画来记录连续的场景与事件,大概相当于今天的电影。

The process in which people appreciate long scroll paintings is described by scholars as “changing scenes at every step”. As viewers look at the painting while walking, the scene changes constantly. David Hockney, a famous contemporary British artist, once said that the day when he saw a long scroll painting of Qing Dynasty court for the first time at Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 1983, was “the most exciting day” in his life. He strongly felt that long scroll paintings were pictures that could move with time, including lateral movement, while Western paintings were fixed and static “windows”.

观众观看长卷画的过程,则被学者称为“移步换景”。观看者边行走边看,景物就在不断变化着。当代英国著名艺术家大卫·霍克尼(David Hockney)曾提到,1983年在纽约大都会博物馆,他第一次看到一幅清代宫廷长卷画,这天被他形容为“一生中最兴奋的一天”。他强烈感受到了长卷画是可以随着时间运动的图像,包含着一个横向运动的过程,而西洋画则是固定静止的“窗口”。

In Hockney’s view, the dimension of long horizontal scroll is far superior. The concept of “changing scenes at every step” has profound influence on his creation, such as Pearblossom Highway, which he created while walking.

四维PK三维,在霍克尼看来,长卷画的维度要远胜于欧洲。“移步换景”深深影响了他的创作,如《梨花公路》等作品,就是他一边散步一边完成创作的。

We have appreciated visual feasts in temple, literati gathering and folk’s living in Chinese paintings, and also experienced the civilization and history of traditional China in vision and imagination, which are reflected not only in the feasts and banquets, but also in everyday food and drinks.

如上,我们一起观看了中国绘画中的庙堂飨宴与文人雅集,还有民间烟火。我们也一起在唇齿开合的视觉与联想中,体会传统中国的文明与历史。它们既绽放于美食盛宴之上,也蕴藉于平常的一箪、一食、一瓢、一饮之中。

来源:云企网-华中企业新闻网